The statement of a problem
Since 1990s, after disintegration of the USSR, one of the basic places in political debate occupies a question on destinies of federalism in Russia. The feature of Russia influencing on formation of model of a state system of the country, consists, first of all, in its polyethnic characteristics, scales of territory, an economic, climatic and geographical variety of regions. In the 20s of the last century the country began naturally to develop as federation, but already by the end of the 1920s this process actually was interrupted. During the Soviet period the country was federative barely nominally. With Michael Gorbachev’s coming to power together with the processes of democratization begun the return to federative principles. During reorganization there existed two sources of decentralization: from below - as the "parade of sovereignties" initiated by republics, and from above - through differentiation of powers by signing the federative contract and bilateral contracts. Despite of fastening of main principles of federalism in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993), the prospect of its development till now in many respects depends on a parity of political forces.
The purpose and tasks of the project
The purpose of this project is to investigate political-law resources of federalism in Russia: to describe a spectrum of the structures supporting preservation of a state system, to consider potential opportunities and toolkit of their influence on a course of political processes in this sphere, to reveal most perspective of political strategy of the further development of federative relations offered by them.
Tasks, which are necessary to solve for achievement of this purpose:
1. To allocate from political-law structures available in Russia those which publicly and actively support preservation and the further development of the federative principles in a state system of the country.
2. To investigate potential of influence of the political actors on process of acceptance of political and legal decisions in sphere of the state construction in Russia.
3. To reveal the most perspective strategy of development of federative relations in political practice and programs of these political-law actors.
Methods of achievement of the purposes and decisions of tasks in view.
To consider whenever possible all spectrum of political-law structures available in modern Russia which publicly and actively act pro or contra the further development of the federative principles in a state system of the country, including those (from them) which objectively are interested in preservation of federative Russia though publicly do not declare it. For achievement of the purpose put in the given research project it is necessary to turn the greatest attention to studying of those political-law actors that in the political activity really assert principles of federalism.
Republics: Tatarstan and most relatives to it on its positions Bashkortostan and Sakha (Yakutiya), which are guided by initiatives of Tatarstan, though are not always consecutive in upholding principles of federalism in a state system of Russia.
Regions-donors: Moscow, Petersburg, Tumen, Sverdlovsk, Samara regions. Not putting forward political demands in respect of federalization of Russia, they objectively support the widening of regions rights, especially in the economic sphere.
Political parties: for the prognosis of different scripts of Russia’s development it is necessary to analyze the program statements and real steps of most influential political forces: communists, left-centrists, pro-governmental forces, right-centrists, national-socialists and others.
The State Duma and Council of Federation of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (RF): besides of political parties, one can’t take into account the possibilities of the influence on the process of adopting the political decisions of deputy factions of these parties in the State Duma, in Council of Federation as a whole and also the role of individual influential politicians as the subjects of political relations.
To hold the scientific conferences for discovering political-law recourses of federalism in the RF.
To hold the sociological researches:
Taking the interview of the deputies of the State Duma and the members of the Council of Federations of Federal Assembly of RF.
Expert poll of political and humanitarian elite in some of the subjects of the RF (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Sakha (Yakutiya), Moscow, Sverdlovsk region).